The followers of Darwin's evolutionary theory numbered about 200 extra, as they thought, organs and biological structures in humans.
The famous Russian biologist Ilya Mechnikov believed that not only the cecum with its appendage, but even all large intestines are not needed by man, and their removal would be only useful for the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
Some surgeons shared this view, and operations of this kind were practiced until the 50s of the last century. Subsequently, it was found that vitamins are synthesized in the large intestine, as well as the absorption of water and salts from digestive products.
There were scientists who had the courage to assert that some of the bodies had the wrong location. Thus, the French physician Franz Glenar conducted to patients with abdominal pain surgery to change the configuration of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the patient became worse after such an intervention, Glenar remained unconvinced.
Currently, scientists have concluded that in the human body nothing extra can be. Many organs have been rehabilitated, but still a large number of them have not been sufficiently studied and their functional purpose has not been clarified.
Tonsils (glands) - one of the organs that was considered unnecessary - turned out to be our first defender when microbes invaded the body. In the tonsils there are cavities, the so-called crypts, in which the antigenic composition of the substances inhaled by humans and eaten is determined. Also in the glands, protective proteins are produced - interferon, immunoglobulin.
In the first half of the 20th century, American prophylactic surgeons removed the tonsils. Over time, it was found that they thereby deprived the body of the first protective barrier against infections. As a result, people without tonsils were more often exposed to respiratory diseases.
Tonsillectomy - removal of tonsils - is now carried out only for exceptional medical reasons: when they stop performing their functions, they are reborn and become the source of infection in the body.
There was a time when the Americans removed the appendix, considering it as a powder keg capable of exploding at any moment. Subsequently, medical scientists found that this organ contains lymphoid tissue and also helps the body fight infections. In addition, the appendix produces a hormone-like substance that regulates the motility of the large intestine. Oncologists say that people with a remote appendix are more likely to undergo intestinal cancers.
When a person experiences cold or certain emotions, he becomes covered with pimples ("goose bumps"). In ancient times, with the help of these pimples, hair was raised, warming the body and giving an awesome look. Hence the expression "hair on end" and "frost on the skin."
Currently, “goose bumps” helps communication with other people: thanks to the pimples, you can learn about the emotional state of a person. In the telecast of the Ukrainian X-Factor competition, judge Irina Dubtsova, after singing the song, praised the singer and said that she had pimples on her body, which indicates that the song had reached the soul. Her pimples never cheat. Artist responded: “Thank you for your pimples!”
Until recently, biology textbooks in biology textbooks were called the “remnant of a reduced tail” and a rudimentary organ, that is, an organ that lost its main significance in the process of evolution.
As it turned out, the tailbone serves as the site of attachment of the pelvic muscles responsible for maintaining the internal organs. In patients who had been removed by the coccyx for medical reasons, there was a prolapse of the internal organs. This phenomenon often occurs after serious injury of the coccyx.
Another vital organ, the thymus (thymus gland), located behind the sternum, in its upper part, was previously considered unnecessary. Nowadays, everyone knows that the thymus is one of the main organs responsible for immunity. Stem cells, entering the thymus, are transformed into T-lymphocytes, including killer cells, which are destroyed by viruses and bacteria.
In newborns, the thymus gland has a rather large size (as large as the heart), with time it decreases, in adults an age-related involution of this organ occurs. But T-lymphocytes continue to perform protective functions. In addition, thymus contributes to the normal functioning of the endocrine system.
At one time, physicians considered the useless organ and the spleen. And in ancient times it was even removed by athletes, believing that it interferes with running. But, as it turned out, the spleen is responsible for cellular immunity, acts as a filter that cleans the blood and promotes recovery after a heart attack.
Animals have a vomer-nasal organ capable of recognizing pheromones, which allows them to orient themselves in smells. A person also has such an organ, but it has practically lost its activity as a result of the death of the nerve endings that bound it to the brain.
And wisdom teeth remind us of distant ancestors who were herbivores and needed strong teeth that could grind coarse plant food. Perhaps they are not in vain, and it is worthwhile to heed the call of Nature: try to be closer to her and more often return to her powerful embrace.
Attempts to improve the device of the human body do not stop today. This is facilitated by the success of genetic engineering. According to some gerontologists, a reconstructed person can live up to 200 years.
But is it worth it to radically interfere in Nature? Unfortunately, there is no consensus on this.