The cleverest man of his (and ours, in general, time), one of the greatest philosophers, logicians, sociologists, writers, writers of our time, who are called Saltykov-Shchedrin, Rabelais and Swift of the 20th century - all this refers to Alexander Zinoviev. A person born in the village of Pakhtino, Chukhlomsky District, Kostroma Region, in 1922.
The family was a worker-peasant (father - painter, mother - peasant), having many children. Having moved to Moscow, the family continued to work, but the children began to study brilliantly. Alexander Aleksandrovich himself entered the Institute of Philosophy, Literature and History. From which, however, quite quickly was excluded without the right to further admission anywhere else. Absolute independence inherent in him throughout his life almost cost him his arrest, but he went to the front, where he fought as a combat pilot and ended the war in Berlin.
In 1946 he entered the Moscow State University, became a graduate student in the Faculty of Philosophy. Candidate, doctoral - and now as a professor, Zinoviev heads the department of logic at Moscow University. Exceptionally successful academic career. In addition, his philosophical works ("The logic of statements and the theory of inference", "Complex logic", "The logic of science", "Philosophical problems of many-valued logic") were instantly translated into foreign languages and published abroad - a case unheard of in those times.
But in 1976 the most famous book of Alexander Alexandrovich Zinoviev appeared in Switzerland - “Yawning Heights”, familiar to many, probably, and he was immediately expelled from the party, driven out of work, deprived of his citizenship, all scientific degrees, titles, awards (including military). And expelled from the country.
So begins the twenty-year emigrant life. In Munich, written “Para bellum”, “Our youth flight”, “On the eve of paradise”, “Homo sovieticus”, “Bright future” - Medici award in France, “Yellow house”, “Go to Calvary”. And also the book “Live” is the national literary prize of Italy. Zinoviev is recognized as the creator of a new genre in literature - a genre of a sociological satirical novel, which became the main one in the work of the philosopher. Scientific concepts, sociological surveys, and the social laws themselves become artistic devices, and taking into account wits on the verge of a foul, these techniques allowed us to give a sharpened picture of social phenomena. Generic heroes - The Thinker, Schizophrenic, Westerner, Chatterbox, Patriot, Alarmist, Mazila, Director, Slanderer - these are not just images, they are sociological phenomena, described with a ruthless truth.
“A member said that in his time there was nothing like that. Chatterbox said that at that time there simply wasn’t anything that could have been something like that. The employee said that always and everywhere. Well only where we do not have. Chatterbox said that this is true, well where there are none ”.
“They lie not by malicious intent and not by stupidity, but because deception is the most beneficial form of social behavior. The law works strictly formally and on any material. Therefore, they lie even when there is no need for it, and even when it is harmful, because they do not know how otherwise. Member said that this theory does not explain the distortion of history. On the contrary, said the Employee. People need to be told that before was always and everywhere worse. Because some truthful kickshaw can detect a higher standard of living. Member said the truth about the past can not be hidden. There is undeniable material evidence. Chatterbox said it was a consolation for idiots. At first people strenuously hide the truth, and then they cannot recognize it even if they so desire. The only support for the memory of the past are broken shards and scraps from mammoths. Is it a story! History leaves no trace. It leaves only consequences that do not resemble the circumstances that gave rise to them. ”.
However, the satire of Zinoviev was also directed to the West: the book “Global humane”, “The West is a phenomenon of Westernism” (A. Tocqueville Prize for the best book on sociology is the only Russian laureate!). And for this you need to have a very big courage. And honesty. After all, he never entered the circle of dissidents, did not receive grants, refused all kinds of funds ...
It was necessary to have even greater courage to designate a sharply negative attitude to the changes that overtook Russia in 1985. “Catastroika”, “Smoot”, “Russian Experiment” and, finally, “Russian Tragedy (Death of Utopia)” already written upon returning to Russia - are devoted to the processes that we all witness in one way or another.
In 1999, Alexander Zinoviev returned to Russia, he was restored in all ranks, he teaches at Moscow State University and the Literary Institute. Zinoviev died in 2006 and was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery.
Three international literary awards, membership in six foreign academies of sciences, honorary citizen of several foreign cities and cities of Kostroma, holder of two military orders and a huge number of medals, Man of the Year (2001), the greatest thinker of the 20th century, world-class philosopher and logician, wittiest, a paradoxical and very honest, independent person with an extraordinary fate - such was Alexander Zinoviev.
«A man is always alone if he wants to become a man.«…
This is perhaps the only controversial statement by Alexander Zinoviev. He decided to be a man - and he was not left alone.
The socio-political journal "Zinoviev" is published, the research center "Intellectology" has been created. Six documentary films were shot, one of them is called “I, a painter, a writer”. But he was also a great artist. His daughter Polina also became an artist ...
The logic begins with a man. The whole life of Alexander Zinoviev was logical, he always remained himself, was intellectually honest and extremely independent.